The Various Types of Data Security Controls

    Data security refers both to the technology and the practice of protection of critical and sensitive company and consumer data, such as personal or financial information.

    Enterprises collect, process, store, and delete large volumes of data. Confidential personal information about your employees and clients and data related to financial or payment details, intellectual property is a gold mine for hackers. Data protection, which essentially refers to the processes and technologies that you can use to safeguard that information, is a key element in protecting the integrity and fiscal health of your company.

    The Importance of Data Security

    Data is the most precious commodity that businesses produce, gather, store, and share. Securing it from corruption and unauthorized access by internal or external entities protects businesses from financial loss, harm to credibility, the disintegration of customer trust, and degradation of the brands. In addition, data protection regulations by the government and industry make it imperative for companies to achieve and sustain compliance with these laws.

    The Various Types of Data Security Controls

    Knowing the value of data protection will help you devise a strategy to protect the information. There are several technologies and processes for data protection (data security solutions) that can help the productivity of businesses while safeguarding data. The types of controls for data security include:

    Authentication: One of the suggested ways to improve data protection and protect against data breaches is authentication, along with authorization. Technology for authentication verifies whether the credentials of a user match those stored in your database. A combination of ways to recognize an approved user, such as passwords, PINS, a swipe card, security tokens, or biometrics, are standard authentication processes.

    Authentication is made simpler by Single Sign-On technology, which gives an authenticated user access to several devices, platforms, and applications with one authentication token. Technology for authorization decides what an authenticated user can do or see on your website or server.

    Access Control: Authentication and authorization take place through the so-called access control mechanism. Systems to monitor access can include:

    • Discretionary (least restrictive) access control, which facilitates access to services based on the identity of users or groups,
    • Role-based access control (RBAC), which assigns organizational role-based access and enables users to only access relevant information,
    • Mandatory access control, which allows an IT administrator to control access to all data strictly.

    Data Masking: By masking letters and numbers with proxy characters, data masking software masks information. The info behind the masking is still there. And when an approved user receives the data, does the program change the data back to its original form.

    Recovery & Backups: In the event of system failure, catastrophe, data manipulation, or hack, prioritizing data protection often includes a strategy for how to access the data of your organization and customer. To assist with that access, performing daily data backups is an essential operation.

    A data backup requires copying and saving the information on a different device or medium, such as a cassette, disc, or in the cloud. Through using your backup, you can then restore missing data.

    Encryption: Via an algorithm (called a cipher) and an encryption key to transform the normal text into encrypted ciphertext, data encryption software effectively improves data protection. The cipher data would be illegible to an unauthorized individual.

    Only users with approved keys can then decrypt the information. Encryption is used to encrypt the data that you store (data at rest) and the data that is shared between databases, mobile devices, and the cloud (data in transit). Your encryption keys must be handled safely, including securing your critical control systems, managing a safe, off-site encryption backup, and limiting access.

    Tokenization: Tokenization substitutes random characters for sensitive data that is not algorithmically reversible. Instead of being generated by and decrypted by a mathematical algorithm (as in the case of encryption), the relationship between the data and its token values is stored in a secure database lookup table. As a substitute, the token representing the real data is used in multiple networks, while the actual data is stored on a different, protected platform.

    Erasure and Deletions: If electronic data is no longer required and must be permanently cleared from the system, the data may be overwritten by erasure in order to be irretrievable. Erasure differs from deletion, which is a technique that actually conceals information in a way that makes it easy to recover.

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